CAT #: 71210129
LymphoTrack® IGH FR1/2/3 Assay Kit A - MiSeq®
The Research Use Only LymphoTrack IGH FR1 Assay – MiSeq targets the conserved framework 1 (FR1) region within the VH segments of the IGH gene to identify clonal IGH VH–JH rearrangements, the associated VH–JH region DNA sequences, provides the frequency distribution of VH region and JH region segment utilization, and the degree of somatic hypermutation (SHM) of rearranged genes using the Illumina MiSeq platform.
The Research Use Only LymphoTrack IGH FR2 Assay – MiSeq targets the conserved framework 2 (FR2) region within the VH segments of the IGH gene to identify clonal IGH VH–JH rearrangements, the associated VH–JH region DNA sequences, and provides the frequency distribution of VH region and JH region segment utilization using the Illumina MiSeq platform.
The Research Use Only LymphoTrack IGH FR3 Assay – MiSeq targets the conserved framework 3 (FR3) region within the VH segments of the IGH gene to identify clonal IGH VH–JH rearrangements, the associated VH–JH region DNA sequences, and provides the frequency distribution of VH region and JH region segment utilization using the Illumina MiSeq platform.
Summary and Explanation of the Test
The LymphoTrack IGH FR1/2/3 Assay for MiSeq represent a significant improvement over existing clonality assays using fragment analysis as they efficiently detect IGH gene rearrangements, and at the same time, identify the DNA sequence specific for each clonal gene rearrangement. Therefore, these products have two important and complementary uses: they provide critical information on the existence of clonality and identify sequence information required to track those clones in subsequent samples. The LymphoTrack IGH framework 1 (FR1) master mixes additionally provide detailed sequence information on the degree of SHM.
Each single FR multiplex master mix for IGH targets one of the conserved framework regions (FR1, FR2, or FR3) within the VH and the JH regions described in lymphoid malignancies. Targeting all three framework regions significantly reduces the risk of not being able to detect the presence of clonality, as somatic hypermutations in the primer binding sites of the involved VH gene segments can impede DNA amplification.1
Primers included in the master mixes are designed with Illumina adapters and up to 24 different indices. This assay allows for a one-step PCR reaction and pooling of amplicons from several different samples and targets (generated with other LymphoTrack Assays for the Illumina MiSeq instrument) onto one MiSeq flow cell, allowing for up to 24 samples per target to be analyzed in parallel in a single run. The associated LymphoTrack Software for MiSeq provides a simple and streamlined method of analysis and visualization of data.
Positive and negative controls for clonality are included in the kit. An additional positive control specific for somatic hypermutation is optional and can be purchased separately (Catalog #: 40880008).
Note: For a more thorough explanation of the locus and the targeted deep sequencing strategy, please refer to Principle of Immunoglobulin and B-Cell Receptor Gene Rearrangements.2
Principles of the Procedure
The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene locus on chromosome 14 (14q32.3) includes 46-52 functional and 30 non-functional variable (VH) gene segments, 27 functional diversity (DH) gene segments, and 6 functional joining (JH) gene segments spread over 1250 kilobases.
Lymphoid cells are different from the other somatic cells in the body. During development, the antigen receptor genes in lymphoid cells undergo somatic gene rearrangement.3 For example, during B-cell development, genes encoding the IGH molecules are assembled from multiple polymorphic gene segments that undergo rearrangements and selection, generating VH -DH -JH combinations that are unique in both length and sequence. Since leukemias and lymphomas originate from the malignant transformation of individual lymphoid cells, all leukemias and lymphomas generally share one or more cell-specific or “clonal” antigen receptor gene rearrangements. Therefore, tests that detect IGH clonal rearrangements can be useful in the study of B- and T-cell malignancies.
In addition, immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) gene hypermutation status provides important prognostic information for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). The presence of IGHV somatic hypermutation (SHM) is defined as greater or equal to 2% difference from the germline VH gene sequence, whereas less than 2% difference is considered evidence of no somatic hypermutation. The status of somatic hypermutation for clone(s) has clinical relevance, as there is a clear distinction in the median survival of patients with and without somatic hypermutation. Hypermutation of the IGHV region is strongly predictive of a good prognosis while lack of mutation predicts a poor prognosis.4
Initially, clonal rearrangements were identified using Restriction Fragment, Southern Blot Hybridization (RF-SBH) techniques. However, these tests proved cumbersome and labor-intensive, they required large amounts of DNA, and they were not suitable for analysis of many of the less diverse antigen receptor loci. During the last several decades, the use of RF-SBH assays has been supplanted by PCR-based clonality tests developed by Alexander Morley,5 and are considered the current gold standard method. PCR-based assays identify clonality on the basis of over-representation of amplified V-D-J (or incomplete D-J products) following their separation using gel or capillary electrophoresis. Though sensitive and suitable for testing small amounts of DNA, these assays cannot readily differentiate between clonal populations and multiple rearrangements that might lie beneath a single-sized peak and are not designed to identify the specific V–J DNA sequence that is required to track clonal populations in subsequent analyses. This second limitation can be of particular importance, as once the unique clone-specific DNA sequence is identified, the sequence can be used in subsequent tests to track and follow the clonal cell populations.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR assays are routinely used for the identification of clonal B- and T-cell populations. These assays amplify the DNA between primers that target the conserved framework (FR) of the VH regions and the conserved JH regions of antigen receptor genes. Primers target these conserved regions which lie on either side of an area where programmed genetic rearrangements occur during the maturation of all B and T lymphocytes. Different populations of the B and T lymphocytes arise as a result of these genetic rearrangements.
The antigen receptor genes that undergo rearrangements are the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) and light chains (IGK and IGL) in B-cells, and the T-cell receptor genes (TRA, TRB, TRG, and TRD) in T-cells. Each B- and T-cell has a single productive V – J rearrangement that is unique in both length and sequence. Therefore, when DNA from a normal or polyclonal population is amplified using DNA primers that flank the V-J region, amplicons that are unique in both sequence and length are generated, reflecting the heterogeneous population. In some cases, where lymphocyte DNA is not present, no amplicons will be generated. Samples containing TRG clonal populations yield one or two prominent amplified products of the same length and sequence that are detected with significant frequency of occurrence, within a diminished polyclonal background amplified at a lower frequency.
PCR amplicons are purified to remove excess primers, nucleotides, salts, and enzymes using the Agencourt® AMPure® XP system. This method utilizes solid-phase reversible immobilization (SPRI) paramagnetic bead technology for high-throughput purification of PCR amplicons. Using an optimized buffer, PCR amplicons that are 100 bp or larger are selectively bound to paramagnetic beads while contaminants such as excess primers, primer dimers, salts, and unincorporated dNTPs are washed away. Amplicons can then be eluted and separated from the paramagnetic beads resulting in a more purified PCR product for downstream analysis and amplicon quantification.
Purified amplicons are quantified using the KAPA Library Quantification Kits for Illumina platforms. Purified and diluted PCR amplicons and a set of six pre-diluted DNA standards are amplified by qPCR methods, using the KAPA SYBR® FAST qPCR Master Mix. The primers in the KAPA kit target Illumina P5 and P7 flow cell adapter oligo sequences.
The average Ct score for the pre-diluted DNA Standards are plotted against log10 to generate a standard curve, which can then be used to calculate the concentration (nM) of the PCR amplicons derived from sample DNA. Calculating the concentration of PCR amplicons allows equal amplicon representation in the final pooled library that is loaded onto the MiSeq for sequencing.
Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)
Sanger sequencing methods represent the most popular in a range of ‘first-generation’ nucleic acid sequencing technologies. Newer methods, which leverage massively parallel sequencing approaches, are often referred to as Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). NGS technologies can use various combination strategies of template preparation, sequencing, imaging, and bioinformatics for genome alignment and assembly.
NGS technologies used in this product rely on the amplification of genetic sequences using a series of consensus forward and reverse primers that include adapter and index tags. Amplicons generated with this LymphoTrack master mixes are quantified, pooled, and loaded onto a flow cell for sequencing with an Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. Specifically, the amplified products in the library are hybridized to oligonucleotides on a flow cell and are amplified to form local clonal colonies (bridge amplification). Four types of reversible terminator bases (RT-bases) are added and the sequencing strand of DNA is extended one nucleotide at a time. To record the incorporation of nucleotides, a CCD camera takes an image of the light emitted when fluorescently labeled nucleotides are added to the sequencing strand. A terminal 3’ blocker is added after each cycle of the sequencing process and any unincorporated nucleotides are removed prior to the addition of four new RT-bases.
This product was designed to allow for two different levels of multiplexing in order to reduce costs and time for laboratories. The first level of multiplexing originates from the multiple indices that are provided with the assays, up to 24. Each of these 24 indices can be considered to act as a unique barcode that allows amplicons from individual samples to be pooled together after PCR amplification to generate the sequencing library. Later, the resulting sequences can be sorted by the bioinformatics software to identify those that originated from an individual sample.
The second level of multiplexing originates from the ability of the accompanying software to sort sequencing data by both index and target. This allows amplicons generated with targeted primers (even those tagged with the same index) to be pooled together to generate the library and sequenced on a single flow cell. An example would be to sequence products from several Invivoscribe LymphoTrack MiSeq kits such as IGH FR1, IGK, and TRG together. When multiplexing amplicons of different gene targets it is important to use the appropriate sequencing chemistry. The number of sequencing cycles must be sufficient to sequence the largest amplicon in the multiplex. For example, when multiplexing IGH FR1, IGK , and TRG amplicons, the MiSeq v2 (500-cycle) or v3 (600-cycle) sequencing kit should be used.
The number of samples that can be multiplexed onto a single flow cell is also dependent on the flow cell that is utilized. Illumina’s standard flow cells (MiSeq v3) can generate 20-25 million reads. To determine the number of reads per sample, divide the total number of reads for the flow cell by the number of samples that will be multiplexed. Illumina also manufacturers other flow cells that utilize the same sequencing chemistry, but generate fewer reads. When using these alternative flow cells one must consider that fewer total reads either means less depth per sample or fewer samples can be run on the flow cell to achieve the same depth per sample.
IGHV Somatic Hypermutation (SHM) Evaluation
For evaluation of the somatic hypermutation rate of the IGHV region, the LymphoTrack IGH FR1 Assay – MiSeq can be used; however, this assay only targets a portion of the IGHV region. When analyzing the somatic hypermutation status of samples, the bioinformatics software will provide the mutation rate based upon the percent mismatch of the clonal amplicons as compared to germline reference genes, a prediction of whether the protein translation would be in or out of frame, a prediction of whether mutations or gene rearrangements result in a pre-mature stop codon, and the percentage of VH gene coverage for the region targeted by the assay.
Minimal Residual Disease Evaluation
NGS-based minimal residual disease (MRD) testing is a proven tool that aids in the development of treatment strategies for hematologic malignancies. The LymphoTrack Clonality Assays can be used with the LymphoTrack MRD Software (Catalog # 75000008), LymphoQuant® Internal Controls and LymphoTrack Low Positive Controls to objectively track up to five clonal rearrangements in longitudinal studies with up to 10-6 sensitivity. For more information on our bundled MRD solution email firstname.lastname@example.org or visit www.invivoscribe.com/mrd-clonality.
This RUO assay tests genomic DNA. The minimum input quantity is 50 ng of high quality DNA.
- Evans PA, et al. (2007) Leukemia. 21,207–214.
- Miller JE, et al. (2013) Molecular Genetic Pathology (2nd Edition., sections 184.108.40.206 and 220.127.116.11).
- Ghia P, et al. (2007) Blood. 109(1): 259–270.
- Tonegawa, S. (1983) Nature. 302, 575-581.
- Trainor, KJ, et al. (1990) Blood. 75, 2220-2222.
This product is for Research Use Only; not for use in diagnostic procedures.
This product is covered by one or more patents and patent applications owned by or exclusively licensed to Invivoscribe, Inc., including United States Patent Number 7785783, United States Patent Number 8859748, United States Patent Number 10280462, European Patent Number EP 1549764B1 (validated in 16 countries, and augmented by related European Patents Numbered EP2418287A3 and EP 2460889A3), Japanese Patent Number JP04708029B2, Japanese Patent Application Number 2006-529437, Brazil Patent Application Number PI0410283.5, Canadian Patent Number CA2525122, Indian Patent Number IN243620, Mexican Patent Number MX286493, Chinese Patent Number CN1806051, and Korean Patent Number 101215194.
Use of this product may require nucleic acid amplification methods such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Any necessary license to practice amplification methods or to use reagents, amplification enzymes or equipment covered by third party patents is the responsibility of the user and no such license is granted by Invivoscribe, Inc., expressly or by implication.
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